How to Outline a Novel (With Worksheet + Template)

How to Outline a Novel (With Worksheet + Template)

20 Remarkable Comments

Let me tell you a really tragic story then – a tale of passionate quest and heartbreaking despair!

Once upon a time, there was somebody who wanted to write a novel. They had an idea they adored, and maybe a character or a scene too.

One bright morning they sat down to write it. At first, everything seemed smooth sailing, and it’s very possible it was even fun.

But somewhere along the way, things must have gone terribly wrong because suddenly our main character noticed that their plot was stalling like an old tractor motor.

Maybe plot threads got all messed up, or that whole thing went stale like the last slice of bread found in the bread bag after the weekend. Not very alluring at all.

Or maybe there was a problem with pacing and characters, you know, arcs and subplots making less sense than a librarian playing the Super Bowl.

That plot-stricken person started to wonder if they had enough conflict, if they should re-order the scenes, and did that climax really make sense…? Luckily, by that point, they were already completely stuck in their sagging middle, and it became easy to discard of the entire thing…

Was that person you?

Or did you at least have something in common with them?

Here is the problem: You started without a plan.

You skipped the outline.

And while for some experienced writers that might be the way to go, for the overwhelming majority of writers I do not recommend it at all – for the simple reason that you have to take care of too many moving parts at once.

So in this post, we are going to take a look at a very simple and basic method you can use to create a fully functioning outline; and maybe more importantly, I’m going to show you a system for organizing that outline into a neat list or table that will massively help with the writing of your first draft.

So dear pantsers, cover your ears, because you won’t like this (but whom am I talking to!? You probably didn’t click on that nasty headline anyways.).

And plotters, welcome to paradise!

In this post, learn:

  • Which elements your story needs
  • How to pack all of these story elements into one enticing unit
  • What your outline should include
  • How to create an outline that gives you the best possible shot when writing your first draft
  • How to organize your scene list

We will do this in two steps:

  1. BUILD: Put together all the elements of an exciting, fully-functioning plot
  2. ORGANIZE: Structure that plot into a table or list to support you with your writing process

Separating these two steps will make it much easier for you to get to a useful, well-structured outline.

And of course you will also get a…

Novel Outline Worksheet

Download your complete guide to outlining (it’s free)!

It’s a summary of this post that is turned into a really helpful worksheet, plus a handy timeline template for writing your first draft (for filled out example see below). Never again get confused or caught up in your plot threads like in sticky spiderwebs! Ugggh!!

How to Outline Your Novel: Free Worksheet + Template

And now, let’s get right into it:

How to Write a Novel Outline

Outlining your novel might feel confusing. But splitting it up into two parts will make it much easier. Let’s start with step…

1. BUILD: Putting Together All of the Great Story Elements You Need

A. Your Plot in a Nutshell

Let’s create your plot in a nutshell – the simplest possible version!

Here are the very basics of any plot. Answer these questions:

  1. Who is your main character?
  2. What do they want?
  3. What’s the problem?

Let’s look at these questions one by one in detail:

1. Who is your main character?

To give your story focus and direction, you need one (or in rare cases several) main character(s). This is your starting point.

Who shall it be? Dig into the deepest corners of your brain and see if someone is at home. If you have several characters, it’s good to settle on one or two maximum.

Spend a bit of time on describing the personality of your main character. It will serve you well later, when you figure out your plot’s direction and which new twists to insert.

2. What do they want?

What your main character wants will create your entire story. His motive is what sends him on the journey and kicks off the plot.

You can choose between many different types of goals for your character. Here are some examples:

  • Materialistic goals: A million dollars; a new car
  • Achievement goals: Win the race; pass the exam
  • Life goals: Marry that girl; build that business
  • Emotional goals: Feeling better about yourself after taking revenge; impressing your friends with your connections
  • Goals of avoiding something: Avoiding being captured by the police; avoiding losing power over the kingdom
  • Goals of getting rid of something: Escaping a miserable living situation; poisoning the mother-in-law
  • Mission goals: Landing on Mars; finding the Holy Grail
  • Survival goals: Escaping the burning building; finding the antidote
  • Can you think of any more types of goals?

If you have no idea what your main character’s goal could be, then ask her!

Look at it like this: If grandpa asked you to cook him soup, you wouldn’t stand in front of the kitchen cupboard endlessly pondering on which soup to cook, would you?

No way – you would just ask him! (and thanks for caring, you warm-hearted human being you.)

That’s exactly how you should treat your characters: As real people, asking them for their desires. And if they don’t want to tell you, then maybe you need to spend more time with them to get to know them better.

3. What’s the problem?

The third part of the equation (don’t we all just love math?) is the obstacle – the problem. If your character immediately got whatever he wanted, then we wouldn’t have much of a story, would we? So his problem creates our plot.

In many cases, when you describe what he wants, the problem is already included (e.g. you wouldn’t ask yourself for very long what your problem was, if your goal was to escape from a burning building: your steak getting well done within nanoseconds would undeniably let you know).

In other cases, you have to add a nice juicy obstacle to the mix. Pick one that will lead your story to scenes you will enjoy!

Here are some types of story problems:

  • The antagonist(s) is/are the problem: Supervillain; greedy corporate boss
  • Major catastrophe is the problem: Flood; miners trapped under ground
  • Personal problem: Character contracts HIV; character loses his job
  • Internal problems: Character mourning for her husband; character lost all self-confidence
  • Riddle problem: Who is the murderer? (riddle to guess for the main character; or for the audience; or for both)
  • Decision problem: Which suitor will she like better?
  • Social problem: Intrigue on the royal court; agent playing off other agent against his foes
  • Hostile environment problem: War; jungle expedition
  • Step-by-step challenge: A series of smaller problems

It’s often fun to combine several of these problems. For example, try a thriller in which we have a powerful secret service for an antagonist, but our main character also has to wonder how that secret service is able to conduct its operations so effortlessly (riddle).


Need to create problems (obstacles) for your plot? Your Ultimate Guide to Outlining (With Free Worksheet + Template)

At this point, it’s fun to go into details about your character’s obstacles:

  • What/Who creates these problems?
  • What’s an unexpected way of resolving them?
  • Which detours are necessary to resolve them?
  • And which smaller parts could the problem be split up into?

These details will make your plot, so think about them carefully. Think about all of the possibilities where your story could go… Allow yourself to get crazy! You can always scratch ideas later, if you don’t like them.

You now have your plot-in-a-nutshell ready. Please pay attention to this very complex graphic that visualizes your distinguished plot:


Your sophisticated plotting guideline (How to Outline Your Novel: With Free Template + Worksheet)

What now?

B. Adding More Elements to Your Plot

Your character solving one single problem will usually not be enough to fill an entire novel. And that means it’s time to bring in more elements.

At this point, you can really bring in any idea you want. Worry about how to incorporate your ideas into your plot later. This is a very creative stage, the sky is the limit!

Consider these elements:

  • Bringing in other characters: Which lovely or odd folks can you think of?
  • Bringing in more problems: Look at the list above or create your own problems. That’s right, if you want to have problems, go get your own! *pissed look*
  • Bringing in fun locations: Camping ground or castle – choose unconventional sites
  • Bringing in odd situations, accidents, incidents, bad weather, whatever…

The next step is important:

C. Make Sure You Have a New Twist Every 25% of the Outline

For your story to stay interesting, you need to give it a new twist every now and then. As a rule of thumb, let’s say a new twist or turn has to happen every 25% along the way.


How to Outline Your Novel: With Free Template + Worksheet


Look at your plot so far: Does it show some major change of direction every quarter of the plot or so? If not, you now have to come up with something and insert it into your outline. Big moments are what a good story is all about, so don’t be stingy!

Also, make sure to bring in the first one of these problems very early on, within the first couple of pages. Otherwise your readers might close your book right away because you never really hooked them.

And if you have no idea how to continue, do this:

  • Ask your characters what they feel like doing or what they want
  • Bring in some new element

Now we just have to tie everything up into a neat package:

D. Finally, Connect It All in a Way That Makes Sense

Look at your outline! You should have plenty of material to write about by now: Incidents, twists/problems and characters. However, it might still look more like a loose bunch of scenes than an actual story.

I want you to do these two things to tie it all up neatly:

1. Focus on your main story arc (= on your character’s quest)

With all the elements you have brought in now, it would be easy to go astray like a cat in heat: You could at any point go after your next shiny character or side scene. Don’t do this!

Most of your scenes and situations (let’s say 70%-80%) have to be about the thing your main character wants, the thing that kicked off the entire plot. If that means you have to scratch scenes and elements, then please discharge your duties now.

2. Look for Missing Connections and Missing Logical Links between Scenes

For each scene, ask yourself: Does it make sense for this scene to be in there? Is this scene motivated by the story?

If it doesn’t/isn’t, then you have to insert a trigger for the scene and/or find an earlier scene or connection that could lead to this scene. Otherwise you have to scratch your scene entirely.


Say you are writing a thriller about a war between two mafia gangs.

You have this idea about a shootout scene on top of a moving train. What can you say, you like trains and danger. You can see the jumping from wagon to wagon, masterful gunmen firing over the rattling of the wheels, the quick ducking before tunnels, etc… you love it! But the scene is not connected to your main plot in any way.

What should you do?

You have to focus on your main plot. So you need to find a way to connect your scene to your main plot, if you want to keep your scene in. You need to find a reason, a logical connection, for it to exist.

This is your idea:

The shooting happens on top of a moving train because it’s about a briefcase on the train that’s full of floorplans and information. That briefcase is on the train because our main character was travelling with it. He was travelling with it because he is a courier of one of the two gangs and had to bring that information to his boss. He had to bring that information to his boss because it was key to preparing a hit on their rival gang.

There you have it: You find a first reason for your scene to exist, and then go back the chain of reasons until you land with your main plot. You have seamlessly incorporated an exciting scene into your story.

Your other option, of course, is to scratch your scene altogether.

By the way, you can look at my guide on how to write action scenes or fight scenes in general, if you need guidance on that topic.



How to outline a novel: Mafia Starter Kit


You have now connected all the gaps in your plotline and scratched everything that doesn’t fit in. Your story has become a smooth and compact unit.

Now how do you structure that plot into an outline that makes writing your first draft a breeze?

2. ORGANIZE: How to Write a Novel Outline

Let me quickly outline for you how to outline. Many writers seem to be confused about what a structured outline should look like, but it’s really very simple.

Let’s go step-by-step again, because we like steps:

A. Create a Full Scene List

At this point, you have your full sequence of events ready. You know exactly what is happening in your story. Now you have to clearly split up your story into single scenes or chapters.

Remember, a new scene starts whenever the characters involved, or the time or the place change – whichever one of these happens first.

Number your scenes for better overview. Just go ahead with your first scene, and put numbers on your scenes all throughout to the end, with clear marks where one scene ends and where the next one starts.

You might still discover holes or spots where your story moves too slowly or where something doesn’t fit. No problem, just change this now! Having a full, accurately marked scene list often makes one see one’s story much more clearly.

B. Create a Table, Timeline or Other Simple Graphic that Lets You Identify Scenes at One Glance

You need to know at one glance what the scene you are writing is all about, how it begins, how it ends, what you need to include, what its purpose is for the plot, and so on… That’s what your tabled outline is for!

A tabular outline could look like this, as seen in my Plottinator course (you can find it on the “Products & Coaching” page):

How to Outline a Novel (With Free Worksheet + Template)

Some very useful columns you can include are (again):

  • Scene number
  • Scene title or chapter title (“Discussion in kitchen”)
  • Scene location
  • Short scene description (“Marta tries to persuade Henry to give her his car keys”)
  • What the purpose of your scene is for the plotline and for the story in general (“set up Marta’s car accident + show readers that Marta is a bit jealous of Henry”)
  • How your scene starts
  • How your scene ends
  • Characters involved
  • Goals of the characters for the scene
  • What the characters had for breakfast

Ok, that was a joke, you don’t have to do that last one… But seriously, you can include whatever you think will help you during writing your first draft. These are just suggestions. Different authors handle this very differently.


How to Plot a Novel: Your Guide to Outlining (With Free Worksheet + Template)

C. The Timeline (Print it!)

Another enticing way of graphically preparing your plot is a timeline. On the timeline, you mark each of your scenes in just a couple of words so you immediately know what the scene is about (“Robbery in forest”). It helps to keep the big picture in mind at all times and also where each scene fits in.

If you need a timeline template, I got you covered. You get a summary of this post too that will be very helpful when plotting your next novel.

Insta-download this and print it! Fill it in!! Celebrate it!! If you have a lot of scenes, just use two or three timeline sheets and stick them together.

Make Your Next Outline Easy: Download This Helpful Worksheet with Timeline

How to Outline Your Novel: Free Worksheet + Template

And in case you are wondering, here is an example of what a filled out timeline could look like:

How to Outline a Novel (With Free Worksheet + Template)

D. Congrats, You Have Just Created a Powerful Outline!

And that’s it – you are now the proud owner of a brand-new, shiny, fully loaded outline with lifetime return guarantee. Well done!

What I love about the outline you just created is that you can now calmly go on to write your first draft – fully aware that you are in complete control of your plot and not the other way around.

You know you won’t encounter a dead end, nor a minor character taking over, nor a sagging middle. You are fully prepared and can now focus on making your single scenes shine!

Writing Prompt

Writing PromptInstead of challenging you to outline a full plot (which none of you would do anyways because it takes way too long), I want to ask you for your personal take on outlining: What does your outline look like? Is it a table, a timeline, a bubbly tree or something entirely different?

Have you found your personal way of outlining that works best for you? Was this a long process of trial and error? What do you like, what do you hate about outlining? Do you love it as much as me to go into your first draft knowing what’s up? Does it free you to focus on your single scenes? Can you hang up laundry on an outline?

Let me know in the comments section!

How to Outline a Novel (Summary)

A solid outline is the foundation of a tight and interesting first draft. Lay down who your main character is, what they want, and what their problem or obstacle is. Be creative and add some more elements, then make sure you bring in a new twist every 25% of the way. Focus on your main story and look out for missing connections.

Finally, in a second step, split up your outline into single scenes and organize it in the visual way that helps you best: Use a table or timeline or anything else that supports you!

You will see that with the rock-solid outlines you have created with this guide, writing your first draft is surprisingly worry-free. No distractions, no plot problems, no re-writes! Feels like flying. Plus your single scenes will thank you.

And once you are done with your first draft, lean back and enjoy the editing process… because that one will take even less effort, now everything is in its place. Aaaaah, cheers on that!

Image Credits: Crime Scene Outline: Joseph Belanger/123rf; Crying Woman: Igor Sapozhkov/123rf; Dancing Couple: Валерий Качаев/123rf; Mafia Kit: Stasyuk Stanislav/123rf; Evil Plotter: Daniel Villeneuve/123rf

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20 Remarkable Comments. Join in!


  1. Lola Wilcox

    This was a very useful post, Alex. I’m just at the point of outlining my next book, and it encouraged me to “just do it”. One difference is that I use sticky notes on chart paper posted on the wall, often using different colors for main and sub-plot lines. I like being able to move pieces as things change once I start writing. Notes that get dropped to the bottom of the page with no current home seem to ferment there, and then leap up and demand to be in a certain position down the line.

    1. Alex

      That sounds like a useful system, Lola. Another way that allows for shuffling scenes around would be doing the same thing with index cards (one card per scene).

      Keeping things flexible while your brain and subconscious are still working on the plot is important.

  2. robintvale (Jessica)

    Omg! Wow, a step by step how to guide. Thank you! This is just what I’ve been wanting. the other outlines I’ve found online were insanely vague and not the least it helpful. You’re very kind. first I’m going to keep going with this edit I’m doing so I don’t forget why I’m doing it and mess things up. (Anything not to do with the plot or character growth (the arc?) is getting the boot.) then after that, I can get crackin’ on this outline.

    I guess we write a lot of pointless chapters just to get to know our characters more? The rest well my story ran away from me as the ending changed and got dropped. :p Hello outline. *hugs*

    1. Alex

      Nice, Jessica! I’m glad you find the guide useful.

      “I guess we write a lot of pointless chapters just to get to know our characters more?” —> That can happen. That’s why I love to have a solid outline ready before I start. It takes so many worries off you and lets you focus on writing itself, on your scenes and your language. Knowing your characters well before you even start is a big part of being prepared.

  3. Larry Dunlap

    I have a question that applies to all the advice I’ve seen regarding MCs. In a continuing series, or in the case of a detective or some other ‘helper’ kind of character, the person who has the problem is the client as they seem to be who will experience a major transformation during the story. While the MC will be affected by the outcome it seems unlikely that they will be the most transformed, especially in a series character. Jack Reacher will always be Jack Reacher, Elvis Cole will stay Elvis Cole, and Harry Bosch, though often moved, is the same Harry Bosch in the next book. It’s been my thought to apply the advice about the main character arc to the “client,” or is it natural to consider them the MC and I’m just catching up on this.

    1. Alex

      Hi Larry, I would still consider the detective the main character. After all, the story is usually told from their point of view and they are the ones appearing most often and for the longest period of time.

      But like you are saying, you can definitely apply the major transformation/arc to the “client.” However, I wouldn’t drive myself crazy with making the client change. It could add a nice touch, but in some instances, for example when the client doesn’t get much screen/page time, showing transformation of the client could be difficult.

      To me, the rule about character transformation is another example for a hard rule that writing manuals want to force on you, but that are not always necessary at all costs. Art is something that can’t be pressed into rules 100% (although rules help, especially the beginner). So ultimately, make up your own rules as you go along.

      1. Larry J. Dunlap

        Thanks for your reply, Alex, and thank you for this excellent article. I copied it into my One Note for permanent referral. 🙂 I’ve been writing memoir up until now and so transformation is a hot topic for me. And I do believe we have to take one-size-fits-all recipes for writing as guiding principles rather than rote. For me, I have a character who is in no way a detective who is dragged into the role, and of course, will be transformed in the process. However, the young singer who is trying to escape a dangerous situation in her religiously extremist family will go through major transformations, from doubting her course of actions to misunderstanding the new world she has suddenly escaped into and the traumas yet to come. So I believe her issues will be paramount and my MC’s more a mirror to them as he more and more realizes how far out of his lane he has strayed.

        In short, it’s all good. I’ve always wanted to ask this question since I’m a perpetual student of the writing process, and I feel somewhat liberated to try applying the most transformative character arc to my “client.” Thanks for the discussion.

  4. Pamela DG

    I’m about halfway through your Plottinator course. It’s remarkable! I prefer the notecard method as it seems to fit with my brainstorming and pantser writing style. I’ll let you know what I think of your program when I finish it. So far, it looks like it will provide a framework to work with when great ideas strike.

    1. Alex

      Thank you, Pamela. Makes me happy to hear that!

      A rock-solid framework for your ideas to guide you along, bit by bit, is exactly what it was intended to be. Looking forward to receiving your thoughts!

  5. Cindy Bahl

    I am definitely mostly a panster with only a dab of plotter. I wish it were the other way around. With that said, how would you recommend a panster to outline? I know the two should not overlap. But I’m discovering I need a better system when starting on a novel.
    I welcome all resources, tips, or anything else you might think of.
    Thank you for this amazing article and the resources! You rock!
    Take care,

    1. Alex

      Hey Cindy, first off, you can do whatever the heck you want!

      You say “I know the two should not overlap.” However, all of the resources telling you how to write don´t know you. Only you can know (and find out through trial and error) what works best for you. So please, no inhibitions when it comes to wandering off the beaten path!

      Secondly, if in advance you can get yourself to write out a couple of pages about your main characters, their backgrounds and traits, etc… and a couple of pages listing all of the single scenes of your plot – that would help your writing enormously.

      But you wouldn´t be a pantser anymore then, would you? So you have to see how far you can push your pantser-heart with preparation.

      You can find a lot of resources, templates, etc. on this blog, and I send out even more to my email list periodically. Good writing!

      1. Cindy Bahl

        Hi Alex,
        This is fantastic advice. Thank you for your response. And I think I’ll let go of the ‘panster vs plotter’ concept. Remove it from my thinking. At least right now. You’ve given me realistic and doable ideas, the type of advice I’ve been looking for.
        Like always, thank you for such an amazing blog and website. I think I heard about you somehow through Jane Friedman? Either way, just glad I did.
        Take care,

  6. Dan

    I’ve always been struggling with making my outline, it always ends up unorganized. So I’m truly sincerely grateful that I came across your blog. I also am thankful for such an easy-to-follow structure for outlining. Thank you!

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